A new method for fracture analysis of reinforced concrete structures is proposed.  The concrete is modeled as an assembly of distinct elements made by dividing the concrete virtually.  These elements are connected as an assembly of springs in both normal and tangential directions.  The reinforcement bars are modeled as continuous springs connecting elements together. Local failure of concrete is modeled by failure of springs connecting elements when the stress calculated from forces acting on springs exceed the critical stress.  The element formulation and the computer code were developed and the accuracy of the method were verified by comparing many experimental results. In these experiments, the results showed good agreement in determining the failure load, the load-deflection relations, the prediction of crack initiation, crack location and crack propagation. The formulations used to develop this method are simple and efficient in modeling the mechanical behavior of RC structures.

Hatem Tagel-Din and Kimiro Meguro: A New Efficient Technique for Fracture Analysis of Structures, Bulletin of Earthquake Resistant Structure Research Center, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, No. 30, March 1997.