Anew extension for the applied-element method for structural analysis is introduced. In this method, the structure is modeled as an assembly of elements made by dividing the structure virtually. This paper first introduces the element formulation of the applied-element method. Next, the effects of the element size and arrangement are discussed, and finally, the accuracy of the proposed method in a nonlinear material case is verified by studying the behavior of RC structures under cyclic loading. For effects caused by the size and arrangement of the elements, it is shown that accurate results of stresses and strains can be obtained if elements of small size are used. As for failure behavior simulation of RC structures, the complicated behavior of cracks in structures subjected to cyclic loading, such as crack initiation and propagation, and opening and closure of cracks during the unloading process, can be simulated automatically and without any use of complicated techniques. No special knowledge about the crack location or direction of propagation is needed before the analysis. The calculated load-displacement relation and the failure load show reliable accuracy.

Kimiro Meguro and Hatem Tagel-Din: Applied Element Simulation of RC Structures under Cyclic Loading, ASCE, Vol. 127, Issue 11, pp. 1295-1305, November 2001