Methods to assess the seismic damage to railway structures were proposed in order to reduce the overall seismic damage of railway system. First, a tool for seismic performance assessment (pre-earthquake assessment) of RC structures with/without retrofit operation was developed by using the Applied Element Method (AEM). Next, a new method for quick damage inspection (post-earthquake assessment) of RC structures is proposed by using the damage judgment criteria based on the change of natural frequency and the non-contact microtremor measuring method. Besides, a plan of real-time earthquake damage assessment system (ongoing-earthquake assessment) using automatic vibration measuring devices was introduced.

Uehan, F and Meguro, K. Assessment Of Seismic Damage To Railway Structures Using Applied Element Method and Microtremor Measurement. 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada. August 1-6, 2004. Paper No. 1407.