Numerical prediction of progressive collapse of buildings due to extreme loading is still a challenging task. However, increased computational power makes it nowadays possible to analyze not only small-scale connections and mid-size building elements, but also full buildings with considerable height and complexity. The present paper compares the results of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Applied Element Method (AEM) simulations to experimental results when performing blast or earthquake analysis on those three scales. The aim is to highlight which level of physical detail and complexity is required to predict progressive collapse numerically, and which level of accuracy can be expected. For the full scale level, the progressive collapse of the Pyne Gould Corporation Building in Christchurch, New Zealand, was simulated and compared to the final collapse shape. It is shown that the FEM is able to predict the structural response of small scale models well, but fails to achieve realistic collapsed shapes in case of the large structure, whereas the AEM shows convincing results in all cases.
Extreme events (i.e. terrorist attacks, vehicle impacts, explosions, etc.) often cause local damage to building structures and pose a serious threat when one or more vertical load-bearing components fail, leading to the progressive collapse of the entire structure or a large part of it. Since the beginning of the 21st century there has been growing interest in the risks associated with extreme events, especially after the attacks on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma in 1995 and on the World Trade Center in New York in 2001. The accent is now on achieving resilient buildings that can remain operational after such an event, especially when they form part of critical infrastructures, are occupied by a large number of people, or are open to the public. This paper presents an ambitious review that describes all the main advances that have taken place since the beginning of the 21st century in the field of progressive collapse and robustness of buildings.
Significant research effort has been devoted in recent years to the evaluation of the capacity of steel frame structures to resist progressive collapse after sudden column loss. Due to the complex load-structure interaction and material behaviour, it can be very difficult to evaluate the ultimate capacity of structural components using current analytical methods. Therefore considerable research effort has been directed to experimental testing and sophisticated numerical simulations. Although sudden column loss is a dynamic process, most experimental studies on fullscale or scaled down specimens were performed under quasi-static loads. This paper presents the results of a study devoted to the evaluation of steel frame response following the loss of a column. Advanced numerical models are calibrated using experimental test results and dynamic increase factors are studied. Several full-scale structures are investigated for a sudden column loss scenario.