Abstract: This research focuses on the numerical modelling of the seismic behaviour of unreinforced masonry (URM) structures with interconnected in-plane (IP) loaded and out-of-plane (OOP) loaded walls. The mechanical behaviour of such wall assemblies is complex and comparatively more challenging than that of isolated components, involving the interaction between interlocked orthogonal elements subjected to different load types. IP/OOP interaction phenomena are also challenging to model numerically, and their simulation is still relatively unexplored using the Applied Element Method (AEM) – the discrete simplified micro-modelling strategy employed in this paper. To fill this knowledge gap, the AEM is herein adopted to simulate the experimentally observed seismic behaviour of two URM building prototypes, one made of clay bricks and the other of stone blocks. The AEM models developed are calibrated and validated against previous experimental data, showing a satisfactory agreement between measured and numerical responses. In addition, a parametric study was performed using pushover analysis to investigate the influence of key material properties on the overall behaviour of the clay brick masonry specimen. The study suggests that the AEM models used in this study are suitable for conducting subsequent seismic assessment of URM structures with interlocked IP/OOP loaded walls, providing validated modelling strategies that can be useful to both researchers and engineering practitioners.
Keywords: Unreinforced masonry (URM); In-plane/out-of-plane interaction; Numerical modelling; Discrete element modelling (DEM); Applied element method (AEM)


Nouman Khattak, Hossein Derakhshan, David P. Thambiratnam, Daniele Malomo, Nimal Jayantha Perera, Modelling the in-plane/out-of-plane interaction of brick and stone masonry structures using Applied Element Method,
Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 76, 2023, 107175, ISSN 2352-7102, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2023.107175. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352710223013554)